The first team to arrive was the VK6AXB & VK6KED team. Eddie sprang out of the vehicle with his handheld and quickly headed for one of the antennas. Anthony took a minute or so to get his sniffer out and he headed for the other antenna. I could feel the smile stretching from ear to ear. For me the highlight was when I heard Eddie shout to Anthony that he had found the antenna only for Anthony to reply, “So have I!”. It didn’t take long after that for them to follow the coax trail back and meet in the middle. They found the transmitter at 2003, only 33 minutes after it was switched on, travelling a miserly 9km. Anthony has put this down to finally listening to his beam turner. Hi.
The second team of VK6LD & VK6ZGN arrived about 8:10pm and proceeded to start their sniffing. Rob was a great disappoint to me, going straight to the transmitter. Mental note to self for next time….’more 3rd harmonic shielding for the transmitter!’ Rob was about to shout out when he thought he would let Bob find it as well. Bob found it at 8:19pm, but we should take off a couple of minutes to account for when Rob found it. They had travelled 22km.
After a big clue, the VK6FJON & Jodie team returned to the correct side of the river and arrived at approx 8:40pm. John kept muttering DNF, but to his credit, and with some quick DFing lessons from Anthony, found the fox at about 8:50pm. John declined to give me his ending kilometres so we will never know exactly how far the they travelled.
We packed up the fox and headed to Tiamo Café in Nedlands for some nice coffee, hot chocolate, decadent cakes and a chat about the night.
A good night was had by all. Keep an eye out for the next hunt, due in September.
Ray – VK6ZRW
- VK6AXB/VK6DB – Anthony & Doug
- VK6MS & ex-VK6KED – Trevor & Eddie
- VK6PCB – Carsten
- VK6ZRW – Ray & Tom
The fox setup in Windsor Park in South Perth, just out the front of Perth Zoo and about 2kms from the start point in Kings Park.
The fox transmitter, antenna and 12V gel cell battery were housed inside a metal ammo box and placed in a garden bed of long reed type plants.
The fox was switched on at 7.33pm. The metal ammo box, the location and tall buildings around South Perth provided some interesting propagation.
Most hounds found their way to South Perth quite easily, but sniffing out the fox’s exact location proved a bit more difficult.
First to find the fox was Carsten VK6PCB at 8.13pm (40 minutes) and a journey covering 10kms. Next to arrive were Trevor & Eddie, the VK6MS/ex-VK6KED team at 8.30pm (57 minutes) and covering 16.9kms.
Third place went to Anthony & Doug, VK6AXB/VK6DB team at 8.54pm (1 hour 21 minutes) and 21kms covered, closely followed by Ray & Tom, the VK6ZRW team at 8.55pm and 19 kilometres covered.
Hounds reported some interesting changes to the fox signal when the ammo box lid was opened by incoming hunters to retrieve their certificates, then again shortly after by the fox ensuring the lid was closed properly and the reeds weren’t caught in the lid giving away the fox’s hiding place. It must’ve been effective as I think all hounds kicked the ammo box before they sighted it. The odd intermittent changes in the fox signal also had some hunters unsure if their equipment, cables or connectors were faulty.
The fox & hounds retired down the road to Gelare Café in Mends Street, South Perth for supper. Discussion was held on knowing and trusting your fox hunting equipment, rather than hunting on instinct. We also reminisced on the evenings of fox hunts with VK6YL Jill & VK6YS Wally, both keen fox hunters in years gone by and recent SK’s. Vale Jill & Wally.
Well done Carsten for being the winner of the fox hunt and thanks to all the teams who participated and made it a fun night.
The next fox hunt is scheduled for Saturday 21 May 2016 at this stage.
Keep up to date with VK6 Fox Hunts on the website – www.vk6fox.org.au and on the VK6 Fox Hunt Mailing List. (Details on the VK6FOX website).
Fox Hunt Report from 16 January 2016.
Three teams assembled at the Kings Park start point for the January 2016 fox hunt.
The Teams were:
VK6FCJB/VK6PII – Carsten & Chris
VK6LD/VK6FJUD – Rob & Jude
VK6VHZ – Steve
The fox for the night were VK6AXB Anthony, VK6SP Barry & VK6MS Trevor. “Basil” AKA The Fox was out and about at Wilson Park in Rivervale, just off Orrong Road. The fox was switched on just after 7.30pm and the hounds set off.
First hunters to find the fox was the VK6LD/VK6FJUD team arriving around 8.20pm and were closely followed by the VK6FCJB/VK6PII team around 8.30pm. VK6VHZ Steve did quite well hunting the fox with his FM handheld and VK6MS Trevor tried his luck with a snoop loop in the park after some period away from fox hunting and showed he hadn’t lost his magic touch.
Basil was hidden in a garden bed & tree in the park, with a sneaky 1/4 wave stub attached to a t-piece on the feed line to attenuate the 3rd harmonic on 70cms. Hmmmm, might have to amend the fox hunt rules to outlaw 1/4 stubs! 🙂
Hunters retreated to Bella Rosa Cafe in Carlisle for well earned refreshments and discussions where travellers on who ended up travelling where.
Next Fox Hunt will be held on Saturday 2 April 2016 and the fox will be Carsten VK6FCJB.
Fox Hunt Report from 5 December 2015.
Another fun night fox hunting
This is evening’s foxes were Martin 6ZMS, Warren, 6HM and Michelle 6MLW.
Despite the poor weather 4 teams gathered at Wireless Hill:
VK6AXB, VK6FJON, VK6FMTG and VK6FCJB,
Basil ended up hiding at Piney Lakes Reserve off Murdoch Drive Winthrop.
To keep the event interesting he changed antenna polarity every 15 minutes.
First to arrive at 8.35pm was Anthony 6AXB, followed by Merton VK6FMTG at 9pm and
Carsten VK6FCJB at 9:15pm. John VK6FJON had to retire due to a broken antenna connection.
After the hunt the group retreated to Gelare in Apple Cross for coffee, cake and even ice-cream ! Spread on the tables amongst the food and drink were baluns, antennas, antenna analysers and various fox hunt radios with lively A.R chats ensuing.
Keep an eye on the VK6 Fox Hunt webpage for information about the next hunt.
Don’t warm the lounge chair – warm the air with RF 🙂
December 2015 Foxhunt – Report of a Participant (VK6AXB)
I had a busy day in the lead up to the foxhunt on 5 December, and was somewhat under-prepared as I left my home QTH. The start point was different for this hunt – Wireless Hill instead of the traditional Kings Park, due to the scheduled Christmas Pagaent and other events in the CBD. As it happened, the weather was unusually wintry for December, and the Pagaent had been cancelled, but too late to change from the Wireless Hill arrangement. Also, I was flying solo, as teammate VK6PII had become unable to attend.
Fox for this hunt was VK6ZMS, who had advised the fox would be hiding within a 5km radius of Wireless Hill. This did not bode well – VK6ZMS has been known to set foxes near water, and some of these have been a real challenge to find (for me, anyway). He could be plotting another dastardly hiding place – and there were numerous options – the 5km circle from Wireless Hill includes large parts of the Swan and Canning Rivers, and extends to the northern end of the North Lake/Bibra Lake wetlands. It wasn’t looking good. I packed the gumboots.
Arriving at Wireless Hill somewhat late, I greeted fellow hunters in the VK6FCJB, VJ6FJON and VK6FMTG teams, and hurriedly set things up. I had lent my usual foxhunting RX (FT-817) to VK6FMTG, and was relying on my crusty – but trusty – old FT290R Mk 1. The poor old machine has a display fault and the LCD is nearly unreadable, but the SSB RX is still fine. Otherwise the setup was my usual 3-element yagi mounted off the side of the roof rack (armstrong rotation from the passenger seat), 0-50dB stepped attenuator, and snoop-loop for close-in work once near the fox. Eventually all was connected up, and about 1935H VK6ZMS advised that Basil was key-down.
Not the strongest signal. Swinging the beam, I thought “south”. Hmmm. Maybe I won’t be wading through the Swan river after all – however, can’t rule out North Lake or the Canning.
I asked the other teams: “can you all hear it?” Affirmative responses I started the car and headed off, amid shouts from some of the others “he’s off – where’s he going?” (Where do they think? To look for the fox, of course).
Not having a beam turner was awkward. I decided to go a few k’s then stop and take another bearing. I left the yagi facing forward of the vehicle as I headed out of the park and down Almondbury Rd. The signal began to fade somewhat. Headlights on my tail; the other teams were on the march. Turning right on to Risely St, the signal picked up. Still south, it seems.
Approaching Leach Highway, which way to go? Murdoch Drive seemed a quicker option for the North Lake area, so I turned left, then right onto Murdoch a short distance down the road. Signal still audible. Proceeding down Murdoch Drive, I noted a signal peak as I drove past Piney Lakes, off to my right… interesting. Time to take another bearing, perhaps.
I turned right into Somerville Boulevard and headed into Winthrop. Bit of other traffic around, and no obvious spots to pull over. I tried a couple of side streets with no luck, then found the shops near the corner of Jackson St. Parking up and swinging the beam, I was puzzled – the signal was gone. Maybe I was behind a hill? I headed off up Jackson St and found another car bay near a park, off a side street. Still no signal! This was odd. Back to basics.
A quick check revealed I hadn’t lost the yagi on a low-flying tree. All connections seemed fine. I switched the FT290 to VFO “B”, and the Wireless Hill information beacon at 5/9+60dB nearly blew me out of the car. Ouch. Should have checked the volume. Means things are still working though. Back to VFO “A” and the problem became clear – I had somehow bumped the radio and knocked the VFO off frequency – and couldn’t properly see the error due to the faulty screen. QSY back to 144.600, and Basil came in loud and strong. Now we’re cooking.
Swinging the beam, I confirmed the signal was now behind me. Definitely in Piney Lakes somewhere. I recalled I’d earlier driven past the Piney Lakes entrance off Leach Highway, and set off in that direction. Turning into the entrance, I realised the gate was closed – daylight entry only for vehicles. Should I get out of the car and hike in? I was not familiar with the area. How far would I have to walk? And should I take the gumboots? Could be a long trip back to the car if I needed them…. Not to mention that a lone gumboot-clad figure wandering though Piney Lakes in the dark wouldn’t look half-suspicious….
Checking the map again, I realised there were several side streets on the other side of the lakes, off Jackson Rd where I had just been! No barrier to vehicle access there. Cursing my stupidity, I set off again back the way I had come. My QSY error and back-tracking had cost valuable time. The signal was still strong and giving clear direction on the beam. Surely the other teams were all there by now. Hopefully I wouldn’t be too far behind.
Back into Winthrop, and I headed down a side street off Whitfield Tce – the signal was still straight ahead, so I did a U-turn and tried a different side street. Getting warmer – signal now off to the side, and still strong with 40dB of attenuation in. I parked up, got out the snoop-loop and walked into the reserve, following my last bearing.
However, the snoop-loop failed to hear even a trace of the signal. I must still be too far away. Back to the car and set off down the road for another bearing – but all indications were, I had been in the right spot. Back-track and park up again. Maybe the snoop-loop had gone deaf. I took the attenuator and got out a handheld, thinking to use that instead of the loop. Fumbling around looking for the right patch cable. More time wasted. The others are probably packed up and in the coffee shop by now.
I set off again, in the same direction as before, and this time the fox was just audible on the snoop loop, so I followed where the signal led. Through the park eastwards, down a path and past a kids playground, much stronger now – the snoop RX became swamped on 2m and I switched to 70cm, third harmonic. Looking out onto Murdoch Drive, lots of bushes and garden beds. Fox could be concealed anywhere.
However, the signal led me away from the hedges toward a car park – and over by a tree, on the roof of a familiar-looking sedan, was the fox! Hiding in plain sight. “Congratulations” said VK6ZMS. “You’re first”. Unbelieveable. The time was about 20:25, nearly an hour since I left Wireless Hill, less than 4km away. I got lost, couldn’t use my equipment properly, went round in circles and still won. What was everyone else doing?
Similar to what I did, it seems. The VK6FMTG team had also taken the scenic route and arrived about 20 minutes later, followed shortly afterward by the VK6FCJB team. The VK6FJON team retired with antenna trouble. Fox and hounds then travelled in convoy to Gelare care in Applecross where an enjoyable hour was spent drinking coffee, swapping notes and talking fox hunting, resistors, portable operation, baluns antennas and radios generally. Thanks to Carsten, Jake, John, Jo, Martin, Merton, Michelle and Warren for turning up and making it a great night. And I didn’t need the gumboots!
Who wants to set the next one?
73 from Anthony VK6AXB
Fox Hunt Report from 4 July 2015.
This passing weekend 4th July saw the next foxhunt take place after some considerable downtime from the last, due to a busy period in AR for all involved. Nonetheless all was scheduled and it was on with the program.
Fox for the night was Anthony VK6AXB and Chris VK6PII. Both foxes were kept on a short leash by Simon VK6MSC and Barrie VK6SP who kept things regulated and fair for the hounds.
For this hunt an “open course” was decided on, with a starting clue to begin with to provide assistance. Previous hunts have been contained with a particular radius, however the idea behind this one was to provide a bit more of a challenging course.
A suitable site, some distance from the city was found and some sneaky mid week propagation testing was conducted by AXB and PII before the day of the Hunt.
The site chosen was the War Memorial Park, on Stirling St behind Alfred’s Kitchen in Guildford.
Hunters gathered at Kings Park and the fox was switched on at 1930hrs and the hounds were away.
Hound teams consisted of Carsten VK6FCJB, Merton VK6FMTG with his able harmonic providing snoop loop (and much needed navigation) skill, And foxhunting regulars Rob VK6LD, Jude VK6FJUD (in company with dual hounds).
After a sneaky mid term beam shift (hey, the rules say the fox cant move – no mention of the antenna!), a suspicious vehicle containing team VK6LD arrived in the vicinity at around the 40min mark. Final work in the area led to them locating a slightly drenched fox at around 50 mins, before deploying to Alfred’s Kitchen for a warm snack.
After giving a secondary clue to teams at 2130 and enjoying a cup of Coffee, other hunters were joined by firstly VK6FCJB (who was rightly suspicious of the gathering of people within the park!) then team VK6FMTG who used their beam antennas in short order to take care of the fox
At the end of the Hunt some people elected to return to Alfred’s to enjoy a meal and chat whilst for others the rain meant the night drew to a close.
The fox next time will be team VK6LD and the date is yet to be determined however we will keep you posted.
If you haven’t had a chance to look into foxhunting yet, I suggest you do. Its great fun. Check out the website for more info. www.vk6fox.org.au
Fox Hunt Report from 7 February 2015.
Two fox hunt teams Marty & Martin VK6RC/VK6ZMS and Anthony & Chris VK6AXB/VK6FCBG gathered at the Kings Park start point for the February fox hunt. They were later joined on the hunt by Ray VK6ZRW and navigator Tom.
The fox for the night was John VK6FJON and assistants Jodie, Jude VK6FJUD & Rob VK6LD. “Basil” AKA The Fox was taken out to Mt Claremont, near Challenge Stadium, now called HBF Stadium. The fox was switched on at 7.30pm with the fox putting out a strong signal into Kings Park and again the CBD buildings provided interesting propagation paths for some hunters.
First hunters to find the fox was the VK6AXB/VK6FCBG team arriving around 8.30pm. The VK6RC/VK6ZMS team ended up chasing some rogue signals around the CBD and VK6ZRW was on his way to finding the fox, when it was decided teams would to retire to Fast Eddy’s Cafe in the city for a well earned drink and discussion on who ended up travelling where.
Next Fox Hunt will be held in April 2015, exact date TBA. Chris VK6FCBG will be the fox.
Fox Hunt Report from 13 December 2014.
Five teams assembled at the Kings Park start point for the December fox hunt, which was very encouraging after a 6 month break from fox hunts over winter..
The teams were:
VK6AXB Team: Consisting of VK6AXB Anthony & VK6DB.
VK6FJON Team: Consisting of Jon VK6FJON and XYL/Navigator Jodie.
VK6FCJB Team: Consisting of solo operator Carsten.
VK6FCBG Team: Consisting of Chris VK6FCBG & Symon VK6FSYM.
VK6LD Team: Consisting of Rob VK6LD & XYL Jude VK6FJUD
The fox tonight was Martin VK6ZMS, Marty VK6RC and Craig VK6FLAM. They took “Basil” AKA The Fox out to the northern side of Lake Monger, just off Dodd Street. The fox was switched on at 7.30pm and the CBD buildings provided interesting propagation paths for some hunters.
First hunters to find the fox was the VK6FJON team arriving at 8.13pm and were closely followed by the VK6AXB team at 8.22pm, then VK6FCJB at 9.00pm. Teams VK6FCBG & VK6LD retired due to technical problems.
Hunters retreated to Dome Cafe at the Innaloo Megaplex for a well earned drink and discussion on who ended up travelling where.
Next Fox Hunt will be held in February or March 2015, exact date TBA.
Fox Hunt Report from 14 June 2014.
Firstly apologies for being late in posting the June 2014 Fox Hunt report, but life has been rather busy in between!
The June 2014 Fox Hunt was preceded by a Fox Hunt Workshop held in Kings Park on the afternoon of Saturday June 14 2014. Those attending heard from Phil VK6AD, Charlie VK6ZCK and Lance VK6LR on some fox hunting history in WA as well as some techniques for finding the fox and hiding it too! We had some hunters testing the new antenna designs and others building theirs for the upcoming night activity. Thanks to Phil & Charlie for their time coming up to Kings Park and all that attended the workshop.
As darkness approached, some hunters sought some pre-fox hunt nourishment at Tiamo Café in Nedlands, where Chicken Parmi’s that could feed a small army were mostly the order of the evening. First prize for eating the entire parmi goes to Doug VK6DB.
Fox for the night was Anthony, VK6AXB. The rules for the June 2014 fox hunt were changed to limit the fox to within the boundaries of Kings Park, to help newcomers and old hands alike get familiar with the art of fox hunting.
Seven teams assembled at the start point. They were (in no particular order)
VK6LR – Lance (first fox hunt for many years)
Ex-VK6UI – Julian (first fox hunt in 25+ years) and his harmonics on their first fox hunt
VK6FJON – Jonno & team (one of our regular Leyland Brothers – travel all over the country side)
VK6FCJB – Carsten (on his second fox hunt, first going solo and with a new antenna & fox hunt receiver)
VK6TWO – Heath (hunting just with a handheld, no yagi!)
Brothers Chris VK6FCBG and Callum VK6FCWG (on their first fox hunt) along with Doug VK6DB (no relation)
VK6FABF – Ty who only had his licence issued a matter of days beforehand
VK6LD & VK6FJUD – Rob & Jud, along with hounds Maddie & Pippa.
Basil (The Fox transmitter) was accidentally switched on a little early, but by 7.30pm, the hunters were released and started looking for the fox.
Basil was hiding in bushland, just off May Drive, in the north western section of Kings Park. The antenna was a dipole disguised as a tree branch and VK6AXB cunningly hid his car far away out of sight.
First in the vicinity after a couple of lucky turns out of the start point carpark was Carsten VK6FCJB at about 7.35pm, closely followed by the VK6FJON team. Basil was deep in the Kings Park bushland and a dummy fox on one of the tracks put some teams off the scent. The first arriving teams had some small issues with their sniffer equipment, but had an interesting time exploring the Kings Park bushland by torchlight at night time.
The convoy of VK6LD/FJUD along with followers/caravanners VK6UI team and VK6LR arrived around 7.55pm. The VK6UI harmonics took charge of the VK6LD sniffer equipment and with some on the job teaching by dad Julian VK6UI the combined team located the antenna, fox and first place ticket around 8.05pm. Close behind was VK6FJON and VK6LR who were second and third place respectively. VK6FCJB Carsten took out fourth place and VK6TWO Heath was fifth. The VK6FCBG/VK6FCWG/VK6DB team and VK6FABF team were clued in on the location and after some bush bashing on foot also located the fox.
As it was a chilly night and some teams had to depart, it was decided by those remaining to retire to Gelare Café in Applecross for some warm coffee and debrief on the night. Afterwards some took the opportunity to travel to nearby Wireless Hill, where Bob VK6KW was working the Museum’s Contest Weekend. Bob welcomed everyone and gave a quick tour of the museum facilities and the VHF Group’s new shack area.
All in all, a successful and fun night, with the new and returning hunters vowing to get working on their setups, and be back for the next fox hunt.
The date for the next fox hunt is yet to be set, but will be sometime in either August or September 2014, depending on availability of everyone.
To keep up to date with VK6 Fox Hunting activities, keep an eye on the website www.vk6fox.org.au as well as the VK6 Fox Hunt Mailing List. (Details on the VK6FOX website).
Fox Hunt Report from 12 April 2014.
Three teams were at the Kings Park start point for the second fox hunt. The turnout was a little disappointing, but hopefully we can better promote the fox hunt for the next occasions.
The teams were:
VK6AXB Team: Consisting of VK6AXB Anthony, VK6DB Doug & VK6FMTG Tony. VK6LD Team: Consisting of Rob VK6LD & XYL Jude VK6FJUD VK6FCJB Team: Consisting of solo operator Carsten on his first fox hunt
The fox tonight were Martin VK6ZMS and Marty VK6RC. They took “Basil” AKA The Fox out to the end of the Point Walter Sand Bar. The fox was switched on at 7.30pm and the Swan River provided some interesting propagation paths for hunters.
First hunters to find the fox were the VK6LD team arriving about 9.00pm and were closely shadowed by VK6FCJB who convoyed with the VK6LD team to receive some fox hunt training & mentoring.
The fox was switched off around 10.00pm with the VK6AXB team retiring after buning up petrol on both sides of the river.
Hunters retreated to Dome Cafe in Fremantle for a well earned drink and discussion on who ended up travelling where.
Next Fox Hunt will be held in June 2014, exact date TBA.
Fox Hunt Report from 18 January 2014.
The first fox hunt to be held in about 10 years took place on Saturday 18 January 2014.
The hunters gathered at the Kings Park start point included:
VK6AXB Team: Consisting of VK6AXB Anthony, VK6GHZ Duncan, VK6HGR Gavin & VK6DB Doug.
VK6RC Team: Consisting of VK6RC Marty & VK6ZMS Martin.
VK6TWO Team: Consisting of VK6TWO Heath & VK6FMON Monique.
VK6FJON Team: Consisting of VK6FJON John & VK6PWD Allan.
VK6XCJ Team: Consisting of VK6XCJ & offsider/navigator Jet.
VK6FADF Team: Consisting of VK6FADF Dennis & family.
Due to the traditional start point at the car park of the Pioneer Women’s Memorial Fountain being busy on a hot Saturday night, hunters relocated the start point to the Roe car park, approx 200 metres south.
The fox was VK6LD Rob, VK6XLR Rick & VK6FJUD Jude.
After check-ins were taken, the fox was switched on at 7.32pm. The fox was hidden in bushes right on the Swan River, just near the boat ramp at the tip of the Maylands Peninsula. Transmitting off a 1/4 wave handheld antenna, the fox put out a good signal along the Farmer Freeway and Great Eastern Highway in Rivervale & Belmont. The fox saw more than a few torchlights on the shore on the opposite side of the river from hunters looking for the hidden transmitter. Eventually most teams worked out the fox was on the opposite side of the river (an fox’s trick!) and made their way through the back streets of Maylands to find the foxes enjoying themselves riverside on deck chairs enjoying a warm Perth evening.
Snoop loops and other receiving equipment was deployed and most teams soon found the fox tucked into some bushes on the banks of the Swan River.
First to arrive was the VK6TWO team (Heath & Monique) in 63 minutes and 25kms. Second to arrive was the VK6AXB team (Anthony, Duncan, Gavin & Doug) in 67 minutes & 27kms. Third was VK6RC team (Marty & Martin).
Arriving later (with a few clues given) were teams VK6FJON, VK6XCJ & VK6FADF.
With the positive experience from the first fox hunt, some hunters agreed to a second fox hunt that night and returned to Kings Park, whilst the fox sought a new hide, this time a park in one of the elevated subdivisions in Dianella.
Hunters set off from Kings Park again at 10.17pm and the first to find the fox was the VK6AXB team at 11.07pm. The fox was found hidden in group of trees, behind a limestone wall. The VK6TWO team retired midway through the hunt, being required for domestic duties. Some clues went out to a couple of disoriented hunters, so the fox wouldn’t have to launch a search & rescue mission. Next in were the VK6RC team, Marty & Martin in Marty’s white van (With a resemblence to the Twins on SBS TV show Swift & Shift Couriers), followed by VK6FJON team.
The fox was packed up around midnight and all hunters agreed it was a throughly enjoyable night. Tentative date set for the next fox hunt is mid-March 2014 and if available, the fox will be the VK6TWO team. Expect something tricky if this is the case!
Some photos of Saturday’s event will be published on the VK6FOX website (https://www.vk6fox.org.au) and of course for all your VK6 Fox Hunting information, please check the website regularly and sign up to the mailing list.